Friday, May 24, 2019

Understanding the Operation of Coriolis Flow Meters

Coriolis Flow Meter
Coriolis flow meter (Yokogawa ROTAMASS)
The Coriolis patents for industrial application were filed back in the 1950s, and the first Coriolis flow meter was introduced in the 1970s. The device can accurately measure the density, mass flow, volumetric flow, and temperature of almost all types of fluids.

Coriolis flow meters are used in a variety of industries ranging from oil and gas, petrochemicals, and food to chemical, life sciences, and — particularly — in transfer applications.

How Does a Coriolis Flow Meter Work?

Coriolis flow meters work on the principle of Coriolis Force that was first explained by a French engineer and mathematician Gaspard-Gustave de Coriolis in the 19th century.  The Coriolis force represents an inertial force that acts on bodies in a rotating frame of reference.

Also known as inertial mass flow meters, Coriolis flow meters measure fluid flow through inertia. The device has one or more measuring tubes that vibrate due to the force produced by an actuator. The twisting force inside the measuring tube is directly proportional to the mass flow of the liquid.

Measurement Principle of the Coriolis Flow Meter (1)
(courtesy of Yokogawa)
Coriolis meters have sensors inside the measuring flow tube made of magnet and coil assemblies. The sensors are located both at the inlet and outlet of the tube. A voltage in the form a sine wave is created as the coils move through the magnetic field.

The sine waves are in phase with each other when there is no liquid flow. Once the liquid flows through the tube, the measuring tubes twist depending on the mass flow. The sensors detect the extent of the twist by assessing the phase shift in the sine waves. The difference in phase shift helps in determining the mass flow rate.

Volumetric flow is determined by dividing the mass flow rate by the density of the liquid.

Density change is determined by assessing the change in oscillation frequency in response to the excitation inside the tube. The higher the mass flow rate, the lower will be the frequency change and density of the liquid flow.
Measurement Principle of the Coriolis Flow Meter (2)
(courtesy of Yokogawa)

Lastly, Coriolis flow meters can also be used to measure the temperature inside the tube. The device has sensors inside the tube that can detect temperatures of up to 752 F or 400 C.

The Pros and Cons of Coriolis Flow Meters  

Coriolis flow meters can assess liquid flow in both forward and reverse directions. Advanced Coriolis meters have dual curved tubes that can measure with more accuracy. Moreover, the device with curved tubes is characterized by lower pressure drop, making them ideal in specific situations such as wastewater handling, chemical processing, pulp and paper processing, and oil and gas industries.

Another application of Coriolis flow meters is in the pharmaceuticals and food and beverage industries. They can be used with a straight tube design so they are easy to clean. The flow meters are also used in scientific studies for measuring corrosion and assessing liquids and gases. In addition, the flow meters are used in mining operations to monitor liquid flow rate.

While Coriolis meters allow accurate assessment of fluid flow, they are not free from errors. The device can show inaccurate reading when air bubbles are present. The bubbles create splashing that results in generate inaccurate readings. They change the energy required for tube oscillation, resulting in a false assessment of fluid flow.

A lot of energy is spent in the vibration of the tube, especially in case of large spaces. This can also result in failure of accurate assessment of liquid flow inside the tube.

Installation and Calibration of Coriolis Flow Meter

Coriolis flow meter must be installed with full liquid so that no air gets trapped inside the tube. The meter should also be drained completely before use. The ideal location for the flow meter is a vertical pipe mount with an upward flow of fluid.

The Reynolds number is not a limitation with the Coriolis meter. In addition, there is no need for accounting for swirl and velocity profile distortion. As a result, the device can be used without adjusting for straight runs of relaxation piping to condition the liquid flow.

An air release upstream of the meter should be installed if there is a likelihood of air bubbles. In addition, filters, strainers, or air/vapor eliminators can help prevent air bubbles inside the tube. Control valves can also be installed to increase the back-pressure and reduce the likelihood of flashing.

For more information on Coriolis flow meters contact Power Specialties by calling (816) 353-6550 or by visiting

Thursday, April 25, 2019

Industrial Air Flow Measurement Products

Air Monitor is the premier manufacturer of air flow measurement products for the Commercial HVAC, Industrial Process, and Power Generation markets. They are the only dedicated airflow solutions provider with expertise in differential pressure and thermal dispersion measurement technologies.

This catalog includes solutions for:
    • Power, Biomass, and Recovery Boilers
    • Heaters, Furnaces, Ovens, and Kilns
    • Aeration to Digesters
    • Dust Collection Systems
    • Quench Exhaust
    • Clean room Pressurization
For more information, contact:
Power Specialties, Inc
(816) 353-6550

Friday, April 19, 2019

How to Select and Use the Right Temperature Sensor

After a brief review of how RTD’s and thermocouples are constructed and used to measure temperature, this white paper discusses what differentiates these sensors from one another. You will learn the topics of temperature range, tolerance, accuracy, interchangeability and relative strengths and weaknesses for each type. After reviewing these topics you will have a better understanding as to when each type of sensor should be used and why.

Courtesy of Pyromation and Power Specialties, Inc.

Sunday, March 31, 2019

Yokogawa SENCOM 4.0 Platform: The Next Generation in Liquid Analyzers

SENCOM™ 4.0 Platform technology allows pH and ORP sensors to transmit and receive data when connected to FLXA402 analyzer or to any PC/tablet with Mobile Field Device Management (FieldMate) installed.

Designed with a strong focus on Yokogawa’s digital SMART sensors, the SENCOM SMART Sensor Platform provides greater insight and enhanced capabilities to deliver more credible data throughout the entire product lifecycle.

Yokogawa’s SENCOM SMART Sensor Platform is an innovative analyzer platform that optimizes maintenance, reduces configuration time, and simplifies in-field maintenance and calibration.

For more information, contact Power Specialties, Inc.
(816) 353-6550

Monday, March 25, 2019

Level Measurement White Paper

This paper, courtesy of Yokogawa Corporation of America, covers level measurement using differential pressure (DP) level transmitters. A DP level transmitter uses the head pressure and specific gravity of the media to infer the level in the vessel. It is a widely-used level technology having the advantage of being based on a well-understood principle. It is an excellent selection for clean liquids but also works well with viscous liquids and slurry/sludge; but, is not recommended for solids. The disadvantage is the limited temperature operating envelope of the transmitter. Adding a remote diaphragm seal system to the DP transmitter overcomes this limitation.

Wednesday, March 13, 2019

Repeatable and Reliable Level Measurement for Granular Activated Carbon in Corn Syrup Production

Granular Activated Carbon in Corn Syrup Production
Granular activated carbons (GAC) are prepared from a variety of local raw materials of vegetable origin such as wood and peat, or of mineral origin, such as coal.

The presence of suspended particles in the production of corn syrups impacts the efficiency of steps in the refining process. These suspended particles are removed during clarification using granular activated carbon (GAC). GAC is used for both decolorization and to filter impurities such as amino acids and polysaccharides.

A corn syrup producer was looking for a reliable, low maintenance level transmitter to measure GAC in a carbon column.

It is important to measure the granular activated carbon level because, after the GAC filters out the impurities, the spent GAC is then mixed and cleaned with water forming a slurry, which is pumped into carbon columns.  The level of the granular activated carbon slurry in the column must be accurately measured so it can be separated from the water and conveyed back to the reactivation furnace. The level inside the column is critical to the efficiency of the re-carbonizing process.

Other technologies, including the electromechanical  displacer level systems, had been tried without success. The client wanted a reliable, low maintenance solution.


The Hawk ORCA Sonar low frequency interface transmitter, with automatic sludge cleaning, was installed and tested.  The ORCA's low frequency sonar was able to measure the GAC interface very accurately through the dirty, sticky and viscous black water. The ORCA system provided high reliability and excellent repeatability, which improved automation control and reduced maintenance downtime.

The ORCA Sonar Bed Level transducer emits a high powered acoustic pulse, which is reflected from the interface density selected. The reflected signal is processed using specially developed software algorithms, that eliminate lighter floating densities and stratified layers, allowing measurement of RAS or BED levels. It can be calibrated to measure lighter densities like FLOC or one of the outputs could be used for a CLARITY output, similar to a basic turbidity transmitter measuring solids in suspension. By choosing the correct sonar transducer frequency, the ORCA sonar guarantees the optimized performance when measuring both light and heavy density interfaces.

For more information, contact Power Specialties, Inc. Call them at (816) 353-6550 or visit their web site at

Thursday, February 28, 2019

The Yokogawa YS1700 Replaces the Obsolete Siemens/Moore 353 Controller


Now that entire Moore/Siemens 350 family is obsolete, are you considering upgrading to a DCS? 

Are you concerned about the cost and time for a new installation, application development and personnel training?

Is it possible that the new equipment vendor may again leave you stranded with their equipment as their core business is not industrial automation and control?

We have a better solution for you: Yokogawa and its YS1700 PID loop controller. Yokogawa has been providing industrial solutions, as their primary business, for over a century and their YS1700 will keep you off of eBay looking for spare 353 parts.