Happy Holidays from Power Specialties!

Happy Holidays from all of us at Power Specialties! Heres to a great 2019!

Thermal Mass Flow Meters in Oil & Gas Applications

Fox Thermal Instruments manufacturers highly accurate and repeatable thermal mass flow meters for the oil and gas industry.

The model FT4X was designed for use at oil and gas well sites .

The standard data logger will make record-keeping easy for accuracy compliance with regulations like BLM 3175.

The model FT4X will make reporting for gas lease royalties and allocation easy too.

The model FT4A was also designed for use at oil and gas well sites. The gas Select-X feature is a revolutionary new feature that allows the user to have a meter capable of measuring more than 10 different gases accurately.

Custom flare gas or vent gas mixes can be programmed specifically for your application.

Fox model FT3 is an award-winning and rugged their own mass flow meter that is Quad-O compliant for flares or combustors, and like our other meters, has extensive agency approvals.

For more information on Fox Thermal products, visit:

Power Specialties, Inc.
(816) 353-6550

Schutte and Koerting Product Application Selection Chart

Schutte and Koerting
Schutte and Koerting manufactures steam jet vacuum systems, steam jet heaters, exhausters and compressors, scrubber systems, desuperheaters, thermo compressors, eductors and syphons, ejectors, and valves.

The following is a handy chart to assist in selecting Schutte and Koerting product according to application. While this chart is helpful to narrow down the right product for the job, it is highly recommended you contact a Schutte and Koerting application expert to confirm your selection meets all technical, performance, and safety requirements.

Application Selection Chart

Process Applications Motive
Products Technical Info
liquids or solids
Emptying a tank or pit
Pumping juices or other edibles in a canning plant
Supplying heated water to jackets of stills
Pumping waste liquids containing solids
Cleaning sludge from tanks and pits
Moving spent filter clay
Heating and moving slurries
Sampling operations
Moving dry solids using air
Steam Jet Syphons
Steam Jet Heaters
Steam Jet Ejectors
Bulletin 2-A
Bulletin 3-A
Bulletin 5E-H
Air/Gas Jet Syphons
Steam Jet Exhausters
Solid Handling Eductors
Bulletin 2-A
Bulletin 4-E
Bulletin 2-SH
Liquid Liquid Jet Eductors
Water Jet Exhausters
Solid Handling Eductors
Bulletin 2-M
Bulletin 4-P
Bulletin 2-SH-LQ
air or
Agitating fermentation tanks and drying drums
Priming centrifugal pumps
Exhausting air from vacuum pans and evaporators
Pressurizing vats
Handling corrosive gases
Aerating/oxygenating wastewater
Circulating or recirculating steam
Boosting flash steam from a condensate receiver
Compressing waste steam
Convey waste gases to flare
Exhaust sulfur pits
Steam Jet Compressors
Steam Jet Exhausters
Steam Jet Ejectors
Bulletin 4-F
Bulletin 4-E
Bulletin 5E-H
Air/Gas Steam Jet Ejectors
Steam Jet Exhausters
Jet Compressors
Bulletin 5E-H
Bulletin 4-E
Bulletin 4-F
Liquid Liquid Jet Eductors
Water Jet Exhausters
Gas Scrubbers
Bulletin 2-M
Bulletin 4-P
Bulletin 7-S
a vacuum
Filtration, distillation
Impregnation, absorption
Drying, degassing
Dehydrating, evacuating
Cooking, evaporating
Vacuum transfer, chilling
Removing condensate under vacuum
Exhausting air from vacuum pans and evaporators
Priming centrifugal pumps
Steam Steam Jet Exhausters
Steam Jet Ejectors
Bulletin 4-E
Bulletin 5E-H
Air/Gas Steam Jet Exhausters
Steam Jet Ejectors
Bulletin 4-E
Bulletin 5E-H
Liquid Liquid Jet Eductors
Water Jet Exhausters
Bulletin 2-M
Bulletin 4-P
Mix 2 materials Mixing chemicals in desired proportions
Introducing water-treating compound into boiler feedwater
Mixing powdered dye with gasoline
Blending oils in a tank
Scrubbing gases
Mixing by-product gases for furnace firing
Mixing propane, butane, & natural gas
Compressing waste steam to a usable process pressure
Circulating steam in dryers
Steam Steam Jet Heaters
Steam Jet Exhausters
Bulletin 3-A
Bulletin 4-E
Air/Gas Jet Compressors Bulletin 4-F
Liquid Gas Scrubbers
Liquid Jet Eductors
Water Jet Exhausters
Bulletin 7-S
Bulletin 2-M
Bulletin 4-P
Heat a liquid Submerged heating
Heating and circulating water
Preventing freezing of water in gas holder tanks, cups
Cooking grain, mash, or similar mater.
Supplying heated water to jackets of stills and graining bowls
Steam Steam Jet Heaters
High Capacity Heaters
Jet Syphons
Bulletin 3-A
Bulletin 3A-HC
Bulletin 2-A
a gas
Removing SO2, SO3, CI2, SiF4, HCI, NH3, HF, H2S, HNO3, H2SO4, COCI2, HCN, SOCI2, HBr, Br2, F2, formaldehyde, particulates, reduced sulfur compounds, and many other compounds Liquid Gas Scrubbers Bulletin 7-S
Reduce steam
Power plant requirements for desuperheated steam
Improve heat transfer of surface-type heat exchangers
Reduce and control superheated steam temperatures that harm
Control superheat temperatures at partial loads
Maintain balance between process steam and power requirements
Steam Steam Desuperheaters Bulletin 6-D

Fox Thermal Model FT4X Flow Meter Features

Fox Thermal Model FT4X
The Fox Thermal Model FT4X, is the newest Thermal Gas Mass Flow Meter offered from Fox Thermal.

The Model FT4X measures gas flow rate in standard units (MSCFD, SCFM, NM³/hr, LBS/HR, KG/HR & many more) without the need for temperature and pressure compensation.

A free software tool – FT4X View™ - is available for the Model FT4X that allows the user to connect to and configure the FT4X using a PC or laptop.

The complete FT4X Flow Meter Features can be downloaded here. Alternatively, you can review the embedded document below.

Power Specialties, Inc.
(816) 353-6550

Process Control eBook Available for Download - The Road to Successful Plant Modernization

Road to Successful Plant ModernizationThis downloadable eBook, courtesy of Yokogawa, looks into some of the most significant challenges related to plant modernization, and is meant to provide support for a structured process that helps properly scope, execute, and justify re-instrumentation and control improvement projects. This eBook focuses on basic process control, safety systems and instrumentation for plants in the U.S.


    • Obsolescence for Infrastructure
    • Safety, Industry Regulations & Compliance
    • Operational Excellence
      • Risk of Aging of the Workforce
      • Advanced Process Control
      • Cyber Security
    • Field Survey
    • Main Automation Contractor
    • System Architecture
    • Scope Determination
      • System I/O
      • Re-use of Existing Infrastructure
      • System & Security Requirements
      • Advanced Process Control
      • Operator Effectiveness
    • Different Scenarios: Upgrades, Migrations, and Replacements

For more information, contact Power Specialties by calling (816) 353-6550 or by visiting https://powerspecialties.com.

Weight-based Level Control

Weight-based level instruments sense process level in a vessel by directly measuring the weight of the vessel. If the vessel’s empty weight (tare weight) is known, process weight becomes a simple calculation of total weight minus tare weight. Obviously, weight-based level sensors can measure both liquid and solid materials, and they have the beneļ¬t of providing inherently linear mass storage measurement. Load cells (strain gauges bonded to a steel element of precisely known modulus) are typically the primary sensing element of choice for detecting vessel weight. As the vessel’s weight changes, the load cells compress or relax on a microscopic scale, causing the strain gauges inside to change resistance. These small changes in electrical resistance become a direct indication of vessel weight.

The following photograph shows three bins used to store powdered milk, each one supported by pillars equipped with load cells near their bases:

When multiple load cells are used to measure the weight of a storage vessel, the signals from all load cell units must be added together (“summed”) to produce a signal representative of the vessel’s total weight. Simply measuring the weight at one suspension point is insufficient, because one can never be sure the vessel’s weight is distributed equally amongst all the supports.

Weight-based measurements are often employed where the true mass of a quantity must be ascertained, rather than the level. So long as the material’s density is a known constant, the relationship between weight and level for a vessel of constant cross-sectional area will be linear and predictable. Constant density is not always the case, especially for solid materials, and so weight-based inference of vessel level may be problematic.

In applications where batch mass is more important than height (level), weight-based measurement is often the preferred method for portioning batches. You will find weight-based portion measurements used frequently in the food processing industries (e.g. consistently filling bags and boxes with product), and also for custody transfer of certain materials (e.g. coal and metal ore).

One very important caveat for weight-based level instruments is to isolate the vessel from any external mechanical stresses generated by pipes or machinery. The following illustration shows a typical installation for a weight-based measurement system, where all pipes attaching to the vessel do so through flexible couplings, and the weight of the pipes themselves is borne by outside structures through pipe hangers:

Stress relief is very important because any forces acting upon the storage vessel will be interpreted by the load cells as more or less material stored in the vessel. The only way to ensure that the load cell’s measurement is a direct indication of material held inside the vessel is to ensure that no other forces act upon the vessel except the gravitational weight of the material.

A similar concern for weight-based batch measurement is vibration produced by machinery surrounding (or on) the vessel. Vibration is nothing more than oscillatory acceleration, and the acceleration of any mass produces a reaction force (F = ma). Any vessel suspended by weight-sensing elements such as load cells will induce oscillating forces on those load cells if shaken by vibration. This concern in particular makes it quite difficult to install and operate agitators or other rotating machinery on a weighed vessel.

An interesting problem associated with load cell measurement of vessel weight arises if there are ever electric currents traveling through the load cell(s). This is not a normal state of affairs, but it can happen if maintenance workers incorrectly attach arc welding equipment to the support structure of the vessel, or if certain electrical equipment mounted on the vessel such as lights or motors develop ground faults. The electronic amplifier circuits interpreting a load cell’s resistance will detect voltage drops created by such currents, interpreting them as changes in load cell resistance and therefore as changes in material level. Sufficiently large currents may even cause permanent damage to load cells, as is often the case when the currents in question are generated by arc welding equipment.

A variation on this theme is the so-called hydraulic load cell which is a piston-and-cylinder mechanism designed to translate vessel weight directly into hydraulic (liquid) pressure. A normal pressure transmitter then measures the pressure developed by the load cell and reports it as material weight stored in the vessel. Hydraulic load cells completely bypass the electrical problems associated with resistive load cells, but are more difficult to network for the calculation of total weight (using multiple cells to measure the weight of a large vessel).

Power Specialties can assist you with all of your process weighing requirements. Visit their website at https://powerspecialties.com or call (816) 353-6550.

Reprinted from "Lessons In Industrial Instrumentation" by Tony R. Kuphaldt – under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License.

Calibration of the MSA Chillgard® Refrigerant Leak Monitor

Refrigerant Leak Detector

The MSA Chillgard® 5000 Refrigerant Leak Detector provides continuous, real-time monitoring down to 1ppm. The Chillgard® 5000 Refrigerant Leak Monitor provides the earliest level of detection of costly refrigerant gas leaks in mechanical equipment rooms.

Calibrating the Chillgard® 5000 is easy. You can initiate a calibration with just the touch of a button on the dashboard. But before you begin calibrating, make sure you have all the necessary tools: demand flow type regulator; zero air scrubber; target gas or synthetic calibration cylinder. To begin, select the calibration button from the dashboard and pull out the calibration pen. The display will instruct you to insert the zero scrubber into the calibration port. Once inserted push the start button to perform the zero calibration. The unit will begin zeroing, and will display its progress. Once you've completed the zero calibration you'll see a calibration summary, then you'll be prompted to perform a span calibration. When instructed remove the zero scrubber. To begin the span calibration, select the target gas. Then confirm your cylinder concentration. If you prefer to use a synthetic gas, check the box on the screen. Apply cow gas to the calibration port, and then press start. The span calibration process will begin. Once the span calibration has finished, remove the cow gas, reinsert the calibration pen, and set a calibration reminder. The unit will return to the dashboard view. You can review a calibration summary, and the event log stores a history of past calibrations. Easy calibration means less maintenance and more uptime.

For more information, contact Power Specialties by visiting https://powerspecialties.com or by calling (816) 353-6550.

Highly Trained and Innovative Sales Engineers are Standing by, Ready to Assist

Power Specialties

Power Specialties' highly trained and innovative Sales Engineers are standing by, ready to assist you with your next instrumentation and control requirement.  All of Power Specialties personnel are skilled in applying the best products for any given application. From discreet components to full systems integration, Power Specialties sales personnel possess the application experience and product knowledge needed to assure you select the safest, longest lasting, and most economical solution.

(816) 353-6550

The MSA PrimaX Gas Monitor

PrimaX Gas Transmitter
Indoors or outdoors, the PrimaX Gas Transmitter provides dependable, accurate gas detection. The transmitter detects toxic gases and oxygen and is housed in an antistatic, reinforced nylon enclosure. It also has a large, easy-to-read LCD screen and attaches to an integral mounting plate for easy installation, while the built-in keypad makes for quick, simple calibration. To transmit data, the unit uses a 4-20 mA output signal and can also be configured to use HART digital communication. With easily replaced plug-in sensors, the PrimaX I transmitter is suitable for laboratories, chemical plants, power plants and several other industry settings.

For more information on the MSA PrimaX, download the presentation at this link, or contact Power Specialties by visiting https://powerspecialties.com or calling (816) 353-6550.

Presentation: The Yokogawa YS1000 Series as the Ideal Replacement to the Defunct Siemens/Moore 353 Process Controller

The video below is a slide presentation detailing how and why the Yokogawa YS1000 Series is the perfect alternative to the now defunct Siemens/Moore 353. If you need more time to focus on a single screen, hit the pause button.

(816) 353-6550

Advanced Laser Level Measurement for Liquids

OptioLaser S300
The Hawk Measurement Systems OptioLaser S300 Laser is a new product that can be used for the detection of all types of liquids, regardless of their dielectric properties.

This laser level detection system can accurately and reliably measure highly reflective liquids, clear liquids and even turbulence liquids. Due to its narrow beam divergence, it can be used to measure through grates and narrow passages, and even next to flat walls.

Principle of Operation

The Hawk OptioLaser S300 are user configurable and can be tuned to your specific application. The device uses an infrared, low-gain GaAs laser diode, which allows light energy of 905 nm. to travel to the surface of any liquid and is reflected back. This time-off-light (the time the laser pulse took to travel to the liquid and back) is then calculated into a distance. The low-gain diode allows for accurate measurement of even highly reflective, clear liquids, irrespective of the media dielectric properties. The narrow beam divergence of 3 milliradians (equal to 3ft at 1000ft) allows for easy installation, even near walls or thru narrow passages.

The OptioLaser S300 has strong appeal and wide application in the water, waste water, chemicals processing, food and beverage industries.

Read more about the OptioLaser S300 Laser measurement system by reviewing the embedded document below or you can download the "Optio S300 Liquid Laser Series for Fluid Level Measurement" PDF here.

For questions or application assistance, contact Power Specialties by visiting https://powerspecialties.com or by calling (816) 353-6550.

Turn to the Yokogawa YS1700 to Replace Discontinued Siemens 353 SLC Controllers

Siemens 353
Siemens 353 is discontinued.
The very popular Siemens 353 SLC controller was discontinued, leaving many process users high and dry for a suitable replacement. We're glad to announce that there is a great alternative - the Yokogawa YS1700 PID loop controller.
Yokogawa YS1700
Yokogawa YS1700
is a drop-in replacement.

The YS1700 is a drop-in SLC replacement for the Siemens 353 and is an ideal choice for many control applications offering extreme reliability and sophisticated control. This product family has bright, easy-to-read displays, multiple I/O points, and powerful loop tuning. For critical applications, the YS1700 employs dual CPUs for maximum reliability and hard-manual control for added protection.

For more information about the YS1700 as a great replacement for the Siemens 353, visit this page.

Yokogawa Pressure Transmitter Local Parameter Setting (LPS) Tutorial

We have all run into this scenario one time or another; you're out in the field when you realized you need to make an adjustment to one of your Yokogawa pressure transmitters, but your Hand Held Communicator (HHC) is back at the instrument shop.

If you have a Yokogawa EJA-E or EJX-A series pressure transmitter it is not a problem. Yokogawa's Local Parameter Setting (LPS) gives you easy access to nine (9) basic parameters:
  1. Tag Number
  2. Unit of measure
  3. Set LRV (4 mA)
  4. Set URV (20 mA)
  5. Damping Time
  6. Transfer Function (Linear or Square Root)
  7. Display
  8. Calibrate LRV (Requires applied pressure)
  9. Calibrate URV (Requires applied pressure)
LPS is available on any EJA-E or EJX-A series model with HART (Output Signal code -E or -J) and BRAIN (Output Signal code-D) communication.

LPS requires Integral Indicator with Switch (code E). The LPS utilizes the Range-setting Switch on the indicator and the Zero Adjust Screw to work through the menu and change values.

The video below provides a detailed tutorial on how to use Yokogawa LPS.

(816) 353-6550

New Product Alert: 2-wire HART 7 Temperature Transmitter

PR 5437
PR Electronics PR 5437
PR Electronics, a manufacturer of analog and digital signal conditioning modules for application in industrial control and factory automation, recently introduced it's PR 5437 2-wire HART temperature transmitter.

The new PR 5437 allows customers to protect high-integrity process measurements, e.g. in flare stacks or reactors, with an automatic backup in the event of primary sensor failure, while continuously checking on the validity of process values. It also provides the best accuracy, stability and reliability across a wider ambient temperature range of -50°C to +85°C.

Additionally, sensor redundancy and drift detection ensure maximum uptime and process validity, while NAMUR NE107 compliance makes for easier process diagnostics and preventative maintenance scheduling. A full IEC 61508-2010 functional safety assessment up to SIL 3 means that the PR 5437 can also be trusted to perform in the most critical safety applications.

Download the PR 5437 2-wire HART 7 Temperature Transmitter manual here.

To learn more, contact Power Specialties by visiting https://powerspecialties.com or by calling (816) 353-6550.

Coriolis Mass Flow Meters

Coriolis Mass Flow Meters
Coriolis Mass Flow Meter (Yokogawa)
A Coriolis mass flow meter consists of a U-shaped tube that deflects or vibrates as the fluid flows through it. The operation of this type of mass flow meter is based on the conservation of angular momentum as it applies to the Coriolis acceleration of a fluid. Coriolis acceleration is that tangential force experienced when one walks radially outward on a rotating platform. The force is only experienced when one changes position in relation to the center of rotation.

Operating Principle

As fluid enters the U-shaped tube, it is forced to take on the vertical movement of the vibrating tube. When the tube is moving upward, the fluid flowing into the meter resists being forced up by pushing down on the tube. Having been forced upward, the fluid flowing out of the meter resists having its vertical motion decreased by pushing up on the tube. The two opposing forces on the tube cause it to twist. The amount of twist is directly proportional to the mass rate of fluid flowing through the tube.

Major Components and Operation

A mass flow meter consists of a vibrating U-shaped tube in which the Coriolis acceleration is created and measured. In place of the rotational motion described above, the inlet and outlet of the tube are held fixed while the tube is vibrated sinusoidally about an axis formed between the inlet and outlet, typically by a magnetic device located in the bend. In most devices, magnetic sensors located on each side of the flow tube measure the respective velocities, which change as the tube twists. Newer models have two U-shaped tubes to measure fluid flow.

Coriolis mass flow meters are generally used in the following liquid applications: harsh chemicals, low to medium viscosity, foods, slurries, and blending systems. Gas applications are somewhat limited since the density of low-pressure gases is usually too low to accurately operate the flow meter. Typically, thin walled tubes are used for gas applications. However, when applicable, the mass flow meter eliminates the need for pressure and temperature compensation and the hardware necessary to implement these functions.

For more information about Coriolis mass flow meters, contact Power Specialties by visiting https://powerspecialties.com or by calling (816) 353-6550.

Happy 4th of July from Power Specialties!

"The United States is the only country with a known birthday. All the rest began, they know not when, and grew into power, they know not how.... There is no "Republican," no "Democrat," on the Fourth of July, — all are Americans."

James Gillespie Blaine

The MSA Ultima X5000 Gas Monitor

MSA Ultima X5000 Gas Monitor
The MSA ULTIMA® X5000 features a new design equipped with an Organic LED (OLED) display and bright status LED’s for extreme visibility. The gas monitor employs Green, Yellow and Red LED’s to signal normal, fault and alarm conditions.

Dual sensing technology doubles the sensing power with half of the footprint of a single gas transmitter. Sensors can be remotely mounted, mixed and matched to suit your gas detection needs.

Bluetooth wireless technology allows you to use your mobile device as an HMI screen and controller. The X/S Connect App is designed with high security standards and provides real-time information to your mobile device. Reduces setup time by at least 50%.

MSA’s patented XCell® sensors with TruCal® technology, extends calibration cycles up to 18 months. TruCal technology actively monitors the sensor integrity and compensates for environmental factors that cause regular electrochemical sensors to drift, allowing calibration cycles to be extended well beyond industry standards. TruCal can greatly reduce downtime and provides peace of mind.

(816) 353-6550

Glossary of Technical Terms for Process Weighing

KIS Load Cell
KIS Load Cell (BLH Nobel)
BLH Nobel has been recognized as a leader in weighing technology, process weighing and force measurement. They design and deliver innovative, accurate industry-leading weighing and force measurement solutions and supply both standardized and custom systems and serve customers from a wide range of industries.

The following embedded document is an exhaustive compilation of technical terms used in process weighing, courtesy of BLH Nobel.

You can also download your own PDF version of the "Glossary of Technical Terms for Process Weighing" here.

Pneumatic Vane Damper Drives for Boiler Flue Gas and Combustion Air: A Superior Alternative to Electric

Obsolete ID fan inlet damper drive.
Obsolete ID fan inlet
damper drive.
Pneumatic damper drives are excellent alternatives to electric drives because of speed, accuracy, and reliability. Pneumatic vane damper drives don't have gears or motor windings that slow down response or introduce slop. Pneumatic vane drives react to signal changes and produce movement instantaneously and repeatably.

In flue gas and combustion air applications, rapid response is critical for optimal efficiency, safety, and equipment longevity. In power plants, Rotork Type K damper drives provide a better solution for critical damper applications over electric drives.

Type K damper drive 'drop-in-place' replacement.
Type K damper drive
'drop-in-place' replacement.
Balanced-draft power generation boilers can experience very serious equipment failures if low pressure conditions exist inside the combustion chamber. Transients in boiler pressure can cause combustion complications leading to irregular heating of steam tubes, and in extreme situations, negative boiler pressure can collapse boiler walls and buckstays. There is a possibility for catastrophic failures (ruined boiler tubes, destroyed  refractory, boiler structural damage) leading to long shutdowns, lost production, and expensive re-construction.

Understanding the catastrophic possibilites, it is extremely important to provide consistent internal operating pressure environment for efficient and manageable combustion. ID (induced draft) fans on combustion boilers play a critical role in maintaining reliable boiler pressure. In turn, the ID fan inlet damper control system that regulates fan induced airflow and pressure need to be accurate, responsive, and reliable to assist in keeping boiler combustion chamber pressure fluctuations in check.

Type K damper driveRotork Type K 'PM Series' Pedestal-Mount TK-6 Damper Drives have proven themselves time and time again to be the best choice for these applications. Pneumatic vane drives deliver high torque at tested speeds of less than 3 seconds for a full 90-degree stroke. They offer drop-in-place retrofit to the existing damper drive footprint, plus smart positioner technology. The Type K Drives perform quickly and smoothly at full boiler pressure and damper load, and as required, fail to the fully closed position.

For use on boiler dampers, the years of maintenance-free operation, in thousands of successful installations world-wide, the data clearly demonstrates pneumatic drive's superiority over electric drives.

Finally, always discuss your damper drive application with an experienced applications engineer for best selection, optimal performance, and maximum safety.

Frac Truck Temperature Transmitters

Frac Truck Temperature Transmitters
Frac Truck
showing temperature
transmitter (REOTEMP)
Frac Trucks pump nitrogen gas into natural gas wells and oil wells to purge remaining fossil fuels that may be imbedded in well bores, slurries, and bedrock. The purged fuels can then be used for commercial use.

Frac Trucks require a variety of sensors to monitor internal components: liquid nitrogen tanks, heat exchangers (used to convert liquid nitrogen to gas), and pumps. Temperature sensors are especially critical on Frac Trucks, because they are used to ensure safe, efficient operations.

Download the PDF version of the "Frac Truck Temperature Transmitters" application note here.


The temperature sensors are subjected to continuous shock & vibration during truck operations, from traveling over unpaved roads, and on long highway drives. This shock & vibration was damaging the internal components of the competitor’s transmitters.

The transmitters also operate in a harsh environment, which exposes them to water, mud, and oil. During washdown, the truck is sprayed clean with high pressure water, often causing water to leak into the transmitter’s housing. The water then shorts out the internal components and results in transmitter failure.

Application Challenges 
  • Continuous vibration & shock
  • Harsh environment: oil, water, mud High pressure washdown
  • With frustration, replacements, and downtime increasing

Customer’s Needs:
  • Hermetically sealed: enclosure must not leak under harsh conditions Compact size (space restrictions on truck)
  • Durability: components must withstand continuous shock & vibration

REOTEMP designed and engineered a new product called the Slim-Line Transmitter that met all of the customer’s needs. The new product incorporated an all-welded enclosure and re-inforced seals to protect against leaking. A cushioned interior component design ensured the Slim-Line was up to the challenge of the harsh Frac Truck application. This product is now used in a variety of applications that require a very durable, compact, and accurate temperature transmitter.

Reprinted with permission by REOTEMP

Yokogawa TDLS8000 In-Situ Gas Analyzer

TDLS8000 from Yokogawa
Yokogawa’s TDLS8000 houses all of the industry’s leading features in one robust device. The platform design is for in situ measurements which negate the need for sample extraction and conditioning. The non-contacting sensor allows for a variety of process types including corrosive, abrasive and condensing.

  • SIL2 TruePeak combined with smart laser Technology
  • Intuitive touchscreen HMI
  • HART and Modbus TCP communications standard
  • 8-stage auto-gain adapts to difficult applications
  • Fully field repairable with 50 days of data and spectra storage
  • Compact design for one-man installation without sacrificing ruggedness
  • Area classification Zone2/Div2 or Zone1/Div1
(816) 353-6550

6 Millimeter Wide, DIN Rail Mount, High Performance Temperature Transmitters and Signal Devices

The PR Electronics 3000 series gives you high accuracy, fast response time and low temperature drift – without compromise. All 6 mm devices can be mounted on a standard DIN rail or power rail with no air gap separation, and are suitable for both process and factory automation.

Applications for process automation include: packaging, automotive, robotics, printing, paper, industrial process, water and wastewater, building automation, HVAC, and energy.

Review the product line below in the embedded document, or download the 3000 Series High Performance Temperature Transmitters and Signal Device brochure from this link.

(816) 353-6550

Magnetic Level Gauges: Versatile and Highly Visible Tank Level Measurement

Magnetic level gauge
Magnetic level indicators are used widely in liquid level measurement. Also known as Magnetic Level Gauges, or “Mag Gauges,” they are used, generally, to provide a display of liquid level in tanks and other vessels. They are popular solutions because they are visible from far distances and they have a non-invasive design which reduces the possibility of points points and the risks of fugitive emissions.

Magnetic level gauges are often employed in along with magnetostrictive, guided wave radar, or other measurement means to provide a reliable local display of liquid level. They can also be used to provide an an electrical signal that can be transmitted to recording instrumentation or controllers.

"Mag Gauge" construction is fairly simplistic – here's how it works: A magnetic float, designed for the specific gravity of the material being measured, rides inside a vertical pipe on top of the process media. A gauge with a magnetically coupled visual indicator is fastened to the pipe. As the media inside the pipe rises and falls, the visual indicator moves in the same fashion.

The features of Magnetic level gauges include:
  • Visual tank level indication. 
  • Wide operating temperature and pressure range.
  • Continuous level measurement.
  • No electric power required for operation.
  • Low maintenance. 
  • Easier to read from greater distance than glass sight gauges. 
  • Can be applied to wide fluid level ranges with a single instrument. 
  • Break resistant, sturdy.
  • Wide range of construction materials available.
  • External mounting of ancillary indicators, switches, and transmitters with isolation from process media. 
There are a number of options available so you can customize the level indicator for each specific application. The best way to proceed is to combine your process knowledge with that of a product specialist. Collectively, you'll be able to achieve an effective solution to your application challenge.

More Reliable Gas, Vapor and Flame Detection

Human Sensory Model Gas Detection
Understanding the Human Sensory Model of Gas Detection
(courtesy of MSA)
Chemical plants, refineries, processing plants, and storage facilities contain large indoor and outdoor areas that include congested arrays of complex equipment, such as tanks, pumps, pipelines, and valves. Detecting combustible gas leaks and flames in these areas can be a real challenge - even under the best of conditions. Protection from accumulating gases or unnoticed flame depends on sensors that quickly alert you to their presence. If the gas, vapor, or flame goes unnoticed, lives and property are put in danger.

Legacy sensors traditionally relied on the "sense of smell" to detect minuscule amounts of gas emanating from a leak. There's a problem with this approach though. If a leak doesn't contact the sensor, it can go undetected, leaving you unaware of a potentially critical situation. Situations whereby leaks are prevented from reaching a detector are not uncommon and are further complicated by the physical layout complexity of a room or area. Gas and vapor leaks are affected by ambient conditions, and properties such as the density of the leaking material, the surrounding ambient temperature, and nearby air flow (such as wind or breeze) all impact the detection strategy.  Irrespective to the number of traditional sensors installed, these conditions jeopardize the reliability of the detection strategy.

Human Sensory Model

Given these difficulties, a recent strategy in gas and  flame detection has emerged for use within industrial plants. A practice referred to as "The Human Sensory Model" presents a more reliable system for gas, vapor, and flame detection. This model uses "layers" of monitoring and detection in hazardous environments, with smell based detectors being one of the layers.

The layers of detection include several additional technologies, that together, mimic the human sensory system of smelling, seeing, and hearing.  Integrated optical infrared gas sensors, along with gas imaging and optical flame detectors allow detectors to see a leak or flame, while catalytic bead detectors “sniff” for gases, and ultrasonic sensors “listen” for escaping gases. These detectors react in ways resembling those of human beings (hence the name) and use the combined intelligence of multiple inputs. Through layering sensor technology, a plant can achieve a much more reliable chain of defense against hazardous gases and flames.

Always consult an application expert before specifying or installing gas and flame detection equipment. Their expertise will help ensure a safe and reliable outcome.

For more information, contact:

Power Specialties Inc.
(800) 432-6550

Power Specialties: Trust, Experience, Knowledge

In today’s industrial marketplace, it’s all about trust. Power Specialties earns your trust every day. From providing strong technical sales professionals who get your project done on time and on budget, to offering a select group of the most trusted and respected names in process control, Power Specialties continuously exceeds customer expectations.

(816) 353-6550

Specializing in Providing Instrumentation and Control Solutions for Industry

Power Specialties provides a wide range of industrial control products, instrumentation, and equipment to a variety of industries including ethanol / biofuel, agricultural and specialty chemical, power, pharmaceutical, manufacturing, and oil and gas production. Products include; flow, level, pressure, temperature, analytical instrumentation, recorders, data acquisition, annunciators, loop controllers, steam jet vacuum systems, process weighing and instrument communications. Visit https://powerspecialties.com.

Power Specialties

pH/ORP Measurement for Reverse Osmosis

Reprinted from Yokogawa Application Note AN10B01B20-06E Rev2.

Industry: Refining, Food & Beverage, Power, Oil and Gas, Pulp and Paper, Chemical, Water
Products: pH/ORP and Conductivity Process Liquid Analyzers

Background Information
Click for larger view.
Processes requiring pure water must continually replace the water being consumed. Sources of replacement water are usually local supplies from a river or lake and therefore require pre-treatment and purification before it can be used in the process.

After preliminary purification which may include filtration, clarification and softening, further downstream, a two-pass reverse osmosis system and demineralization operations are typically employed to further purify the water.

Osmosis is the natural tendency of a fluid, usually water, to pass through a semipermeable membrane from a less concentrated solution into a more concentrated one, thus equalizing the concentrations on each side of the membrane.

In reverse osmosis (RO), pressure must be exerted on the side with the concentrated solution to force the water molecules across the semi-permeable membrane to the fresh (pure) water side.

This semi-permeable membrane inhibits the majority of dissolved impurities from passing through to the pure water side. The amount of impurities carried over depends on the type and condition of the membrane (i.e. age, cleanliness) and the amount of pressure applied (energy) to the process.

Not all the feed water passes through the membrane. Some is diverted to flow over them to cleanse away the rejected impurities in a cross-flow filtration mode.

The RO system produces one purified water stream called permeateand a second stream called concentrate, brine, or reject. Feedwaterenters the machine at fairly low pressure and flows through pre-filters to remove suspended particles, such as silt. Pre-filters are typically a replaceable cartridge type which provides a cost effective method for keeping the membrane clean. Typical life expectancy for these membranes is approximately three years.

RO systems are designed for automatic operation and require routine preventative and corrective maintenance. Common problems include membrane fouling and the use of improper flow rates. The result is reduced throughput capacity and shortened runs.

Membranes can fail altogether, resulting in excessive demand on downstream purification systems and poor quality product water.

Both pH and conductivity measurements are used to safeguard the successful operation of an RO system.

Some types of RO membranes are sensitive to feed water pH and can become damaged if the pH is outside the recommended range of 5 to 8 pH.A pH sensor upstream of the membrane can provide a feedback signal to control dosing of acidic or basic reagent to maintain the pH within acceptable limits.

Conductivity measurements are used at both the inlet and outlet of the RO unit to determine whether the total dissolved solids are being filtered effectively.

General Applications
Reverse osmosis systems can remove up to 100% of suspended solids and approximately 90% of dissolved solids, dissolved silica, alkalinity and hardness.

A common use for RO is for purifying water, removing salts and other impurities to improve the color, taste and other properties. It is regularly used for commercial and residential water filtration and is also one of the methods used for desalinization of seawater.

RO systems are capable of rejecting bacteria, salts, sugars, proteins, particles, dyes, and other constituents which have a molecular weight of greater than 150-250 Daltons.

The separation of ions with reverse osmosis is aided by charged particles. This means any dissolved ions which carry a charge, such as salts, are more likely to be rejected by the membrane than those that are not charged, such as organics. The larger the charge and the larger the particle, the more likely it will be rejected.

The majority of RO membranes are negatively charged when they are operated within the pH levels most commonly encountered in water applications.

Pure Water Applications
A two-pass RO system is typically installed upstream of the demineralizer. Its performance is pH dependent with the second-pass section most dramatically affected. While these changes are not significant in the majority of applications, variations become crucial to the success of high-purity water processing.

In addition, the effect of minor feedwaterconstituents, such as alkalinity and ammonia also play a role in achieving high-purity permeate.
The overall efficiencyof dissolved solids removal is usually determined utilizing a pair of conductivity measurements, one at the inlet (cell 1) and one at the outlet (cell 2). This is referred to as % rejection and calculated by the formula:

% rejection = [1-(cell2)/(cell 1)] x 100

For example if the inlet water had 200 ppm of dissolved solids and the outlet water had 10 ppm, the efficiency would be 95% rejection rate. A typical range for this type of application is 80% -100% rejection.

A final conductivity measurement after the 2nd stage is often used to determine the absolute quality of the outlet water.

Ammonia also affects the production of high purity water and may be present due to municipal chlorination of feed water or from organic contamination.

Ammonia (NH3) will through the membrane system in either the molecular or ionic (NH4+) form.

pH/ORP Measurement for Reverse Osmosis
Click for larger view.

Ammonium hydroxide is less conductive than ammonium carbonate [(NH4)2CO3] so it is not uncommon to find off-line samples or storage tank water with conductivity higher than that of on-line readings.

The pH values will be lower. This shift in pH is due to absorption of CO2from the air and the formation of carbonic acid in the water. Without the presence of ammonia, this type of contamination of high-purity water with CO2 would generate higher conductivity as well as the reduced pH.

For more information on pH/ORP Measurement for Reverse Osmosis contact Power Specialties by calling (816) 353-6550 or by visiting https://powerspecialties.com.

Swan DIST Water System Distribution Quality Monitors

Swan DISTSWAN Analytical Instrument introduced it's DIST Series Distribution Quality Monitor. The new line offers three options for measuring chlorine, pH, conductivity and turbidity on an easy to install and easy to maintain panel. Versatile output options are available to ensure water quality throughout your distribution system.

Three models are available for continuous monitoring of critical parameters for early warning at wells, pump stations and throughout the distribution system.

  • SWAN Dist 1 features reagentless free chlorine measurement. 
  • SWAN Dist 2 provides colorimetric, DPD based free chlorine measurement.
  • SWAN Dist 3 provides colorimetric, DPD based free and total chlorine measurement.

All three include pH and conductivity sensors in an easily accessible and easy to service flow cell. They also feature SWAN's non-contact Turbiwell turbidity monitoring.

Complete system comes pre-mounted on panel, ready for operation. Simple 4-20 outputs for each parameter used with SCADA provide an in depth record of water quality. Built in surveillance functions generate alarms if measurement is not valid, such as missing flow, empty reagents, valve and photometer functionality.

For more information, call Power Specialties at (816) 353-6550 or visit https://powerspecialties.com.

A Simple and Effective Understanding of Laminar Flow and Turbulent Flow

Laminar Flow and Turbulent Flow
Graphic courtesy of Wikimedia.org
Two very important terms to understand when studying flowing fluids are "turbulent flow" and "laminar flow".

Turbulent flow, caused by excessive kinetic energy in parts of a fluid flow, undergoes mixing and lateral irregularities characterized by eddies, recirculation, and apparent randomness. Fluid speed magnitude and direction changes chaotically in turbulent flow.

In contrast to turbulent flow, laminar flow occurs when a fluid flows in parallel "layers" with no interaction between the layers. When flowing at low velocities, fluids tend to flow without lateral (sideways) mixing, and adjacent layers glide past one another, analogous to playing cards sliding between others in a deck.

The video below provides a very simple, but very effective, demonstration of laminar and turbulent flow.

(816) 353-6550

Wireless Technology in Industrial Automation

Yokogawa wireless transmitter
Yokogawa wireless

Reprinted with permission from Yokogawa.

The use of wireless technology in industrial automation systems offers a number of potential benefits, from the obvious cost reduction brought about by the elimination of wiring to the availability of better plant information, improved productivity and better asset management.

However, its practical implementation faces a number of challenges: not least the present lack of a universally agreed standard. This article looks at some of these challenges and presents the approach being taken by Yokogawa.

Introduction: The Wireless Landscape
In order to understand the ways in which wireless technology can aid the implementation of industrial automation systems, it is first important to clarify what is meant by the word ‘wireless’ in this context. Essentially, wireless can act at several levels within a plant:

  • RFID: At the simplest level, radio-frequency identification can aid asset inspection and tracking, safety and security, and location.
  • Wireless sensor networks: This is possibly the area where most attention is currently being focused, and embraces areas such as condition monitoring, wireless instruments and measurements.
  • Wireless LANs, covering areas such as mobile operator terminals, data logging, security, maintenance and IT. Wireless WANs, including long-distance broadband backhaul and high-bandwidth video applications.
When implemented within a typical plant, as depicted in the typical configuration shown in Fig.1, each of these areas can bring benefits as well as new opportunities. For example, the fact that plant and process information is available anywhere via wireless sensor networks leads to more and better quality information, with the benefits of distributed control and plant asset management spread throughout the plant.

wireless process control
Fig. 1 (click for larger view).
Another important benefit is improved workforce productivity. The fact that there are no wires leads to reduced installation and commissioning effort, while the fact that workers – whether operators or maintenance engineers – can be truly mobile eliminates the need for fixed local panels. Improved plant management results from the improved availability of video surveillance and people tracking for better safety and security, along with a reduced need to access hazardous or remote plant areas.

Wireless Sensor Networks
Of all the elements outlined above, wireless sensor networks are currently attracting the most attention, as most of the benefits directly relate to this area. Apart from the benefits of eliminating signal and power wiring, wireless sensor networks will open up measurement applications in sites that are hard to access, or where the wiring cost cannot be justified. They will also prove invaluable for the modernization of existing facilities, for temporary installations, or for locations where a power source is not available.

Wireless sensor networks also offer enhanced plant asset management through the freeing up of cable resources for higher-priority measurements in existing installations, the replacement of many traditional pressure gauges and temperature indicators, and the ability to make measurements that could not previously be justified. There is also a reduction in ‘blind spots’ through the ability to make measurements on rotating or moving equipment and in remote locations. A further important point is that, once established, wireless sensor networks are scalable: additional sensors can be added at low cost, and temporary measurements can be easily incorporated for process diagnostics and optimization.

Wireless Standards
In developing a universal standard for industrial automation wireless networks, a number of challenges emerge, not least because most license-free wireless networks use the same 2.4 GHz bandwidth, and many sensor networks are based on the IEEE 802.15.4 standard. Clearly there are concerns about coexistence and interference leading to reliability and latency problems and about multiple protocols sharing the same bandwidth.

Users have concerns about security, with the potential for jamming, sabotage and the compromising of network privacy. They also want systems that are open and backwards-compatible, interoperable and cost-effective to implement.

One thing is certain: the industry must strive to establish one global standard which covers communication from sensor to boardroom, which is designed with security in mind, and which is end-user driven. Unfortunately, this ideal scenario is unlikely to occur in the foreseeable future since two standards are currently being used by different industry players: WirelessHART and ISA100.11a. Although the two have some features in common, in reality they are very different. In particular, the scope of ISA100.11a is much wider, since – whereas WirelessHART focuses on monitoring from HART-enabled field instruments, ISA100.11a offers the scope to cover everything from field instruments to control- room integration. Moreover, it is compatible with a variety of protocols including FOUNDATION Fieldbus, Profibus, Modbus and others as well as HART, and allows over 1000 devices in a network compared to only around 250 with WirelessHART.

Yokogawa is committed to supporting ISA100.11a as part of the ISA100 family of standards as a preferred single international standard. In addition the ISA99 Security for Industrial Automation and Control Systems standard will be implemented to warrant overall security and privacy.

Wireless Strategy
Yokogawa is currently in the process of developing and evaluating a number of products for wireless sensor networks, with the emphasis on self-healing mesh network configurations, long battery life for field operation and a high degree of security. Field trials have been carried out to establish the characteristics of 2.4 GHz wireless transmission within typical environments such as refineries or chemical plants, from which a number of important lessons have been learned:
  • 2.4 GHz radio is sensitive to the presence of obstacles (pipework and other metal structures, for example). Wireless is not much affected by the local climate or by the presence of other wireless networks.
  • A mesh network configuration (involving more than two paths) is important for network reliability.
  • Response time is a useful indicator of the radio transmission conditions.
As a result of this experience, Yokogawa is pressing ahead with the development of wireless-based field instruments and access points as the initial stage of a ‘total solutions’ approach, and is implementing partnerships with other organizations to facilitate aspects such as the integration of auxiliary sensors as well as mobile worker networks, integration of surveillance camera systems and long-haul inter-plant connections.
wireless process control
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A lesson learned from conducted wireless sensor field trials and real project implementations of mobile worker networks is that obstacles may affect the reliability, and hence the quality of service (QoS), of the network. Specifically, the proper location of access points and other devices and the possible need for inclusion of repeaters should be assessed beforehand. This is particularly critical for the successful operation of the mobile worker network, where roaming is essential.

It is expected that wireless sensor networks will gradually be adopted by the process industry. Although ISA100.11a is designed to accommodate control applications, initially the majority of applications will be for monitoring due to battery life limitations. In existing installations the benefits are obvious. Measurements for process monitoring and condition monitoring can be added where the existing infrastructure cannot accommodate them. State of the art greenfield sites are expected to be equipped with intelligent instruments that are mostly connected through wired instrumentation systems such as Foundation fieldbus while having several wireless networks for process and condition monitoring present.

Contact Power Specialties for Yokogawa wireless field devices and systems by calling (816) 353-6550 or by visiting https://powerspecialties.com.