Combustion & Fired Heater Optimization: An Analytical Approach to Improving Safe & Efficient Operations

Combustion & Fired Heater Optimization
Combustion sources such as furnaces and red heaters play a critical role in the process industry. Unfortunately, combustion requires large amounts of fuel (gas, fuel oil). As a result, combustion efficiency directly influences the performance and operational costs of production facilities. However, efficiency is not the only concern. Compliance and safety are major challenges as well.

Download this eBook to read more on combustion and fired heater optimization and deploy an analytical approach to improving safe & efficient operations.

Alternatively, you view the embedded version below.

If you have questions, please call Power Specialties at (816) 353-6550 or fill out this online form.

Mounting Advice for the BLH Nobel KIS and KIM Load Cells

High-accuracy KIS and KIM load cells have several features that distinguish them from other load cells. They are easy to install and extremely accurate, even when subjected to dynamic process forces and severe environmental conditions. Due to their double cantilever design, they have a floating load point and are not affected by side forces up to 100%, making them excellent choices for applications subject to thermal expansion, vibrations and side force disturbances.

Understanding Differential Flow Elements

Differential Pressure Loop Diagram
Differential Pressure Loop Diagram
(courtesy of Yokogawa)
The differential flow meter is the most common device for measuring fluid flow through pipes. Flow rates and pressure differential of fluids, such as gases vapors and liquids, are explored using the orifice plate flow meter in the video below.

The differential flow meter, whether Venturi tube, flow nozzle, or orifice plate style, is an in line instrument that is installed between two pipe flanges.

The orifice plate flow meter is comprised the circular metal disc with a specific hole diameter that reduces the fluid flow in the pipe. Pressure taps are added on each side at the orifice plate to measure the pressure differential.

According to the Laws of Conservation of Energy, the fluid entering the pipe must equal the mass leaving the pipe during the same period of time. The velocity of the fluid leaving the orifice is greater than the velocity of the fluid entering the orifice. Applying Bernoulli's principle, the increased fluid velocity results in a decrease in pressure.

As the fluid flow rate increases through the pipe, back pressure on the incoming side increases due to the restriction of flow created by the orifice plate.

The pressure of the fluid at the downstream side at the orifice plate is less than the incoming side due to the accelerated flow.

With a known differential pressure and velocity of the fluid, the volume metric flow rate can be determined. The flow rate “Q”, of a fluid through an orifice plate increases in proportion to the square root the pressure difference on each side multiplied by the K factor. For example if the differential pressure increases by 14 PSI with the K factor of one, the flow rate is increased by 3.74.

Data Acquisition for Milk and Dairy Pasteurization

Touch Screen GX10/GX20
Yokogawa Touch Screen GX10/GX20
Reprinted with permission from Yokogawa.
Pasteurization is a process that aims to reduce and destroy the number of viable pathogens/bacteria in the product so that the unwanted pathogen/bacteria does not cause harm to human health. Pasteurization is a critical process in a wide range of products such as: milk, cheese, juice and alcohol. Food and beverage manufacturers must demonstrate and ensure that products undergoing pasteurization meet the strict requirements of international standards so that the product is deemed safe for human consumption. Significant fines and penalties may be imposed if the pasteurization process is not followed.

Depending on the product, there are specific requirements on the temperature and amount of hold time required to ensure the product is safe. There are two main types of the pasteurization process:
  1. High Temperature Short Time (HTST): Product is forced between metal plates or pipes heated on the outside by hot water and product is heated to 72 °C (161 °F) for 15 seconds 
  2. Ultra Heat Treating (UHT): Product is forced between metal plates or pipes heated on the outside by hot water and product is heated to 140 °C (284 °F) for 4 seconds 
In the United States, Pasteurized Milk Ordinance (PMO) outlines the relevant standards and regulation for the pasteurization process and is administered by the Food and Drug Administration in conjunction with U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.


Pasteurization can be conducted as a batch or a continuous process. The most common process used for fluid milk is the continuous process. The milk is pumped from the raw milk silo to a holding tank that feeds into the continuous pasteurization system. The milk continuously flows from the tank through a series of thin plates that heat up the milk to the appropriate temperature. Once the milk is heated, it is sent into a “holding tube” that is set up to make sure the milk stays at the pasteurization temperature for the appropriate time before it flows through the cooling area of the pasteurizer. The cooled milk then flows to the rest of the processing line for packaging and bottling.

If the appropriate pasteurization temperature was not maintained at the outlet of the holding tube, then a divert valve opens to pass the milk back for reprocessing.

Typically, a paperless recorder is deployed to measure the temperature of the product (hot and cold) as well as the divert valve position. The operation of the divert valve is often triggered from the paperless recorder. It is imperative to record these variables to ensure the product is processed correctly through pasteurization. Additionally, the recorded data is often used for audit and traceability requirements.


Yokogawa’s best-in-class panel mount paperless recorders are fully integrated data acquisition and display stations with secure, built-in data storage and network connectivity. Panel-mount solutions are NEMA compliant and integrate the data acquisition equipment into a control panel. Yokogawa’s paperless recorder lineup meets the rigorous industry standards such as PMO, HTST and FDA 21CFRPart11.

For more information about Yokogawa products, contact:

Power Specialties, Inc.
Raytown, MO 64133
Toll Free: (800) 432-6550
Phone: (816) 353-6550
Fax: (816) 353-1740